It helps your body make protein and bone, and it keeps your blood sugar stable. You can get it from nuts, seeds, and leafy greens. But older people tend to eat less of it. Plus, they’re more likely to have long-term health conditions or take many medications, both of which may leave you short of magnesium.
These “friendly” bacteria are good for your gut. You get them from fermented foods like yogurt or sauerkraut, or from supplements. They can help with digestive issues like diarrhea or irritable bowel syndrome, and may even protect against allergies. Probiotics are likely safe if you’re healthy. But talk to your doctor first if you have any medical issues or a weakened immune system.
Omega-3s Fatty Acids
These fatty acids are called “essential” because your body can’t make them. They’re important for your eyes, brain, and sperm cells. They also could help protect against age-related disease like Alzheimer’s, arthritis, and macular degeneration, which can cause blindness. Unless your doctor says otherwise, it’s best to get your omega-3s from food like fatty fish, walnuts, canola oil, or flaxseed.
Many seniors Citizens don’t get enough of this underappreciated micronutrient. It helps your sense of smell and taste, and fights infections and inflammation — all important jobs in older bodies. Zinc also may protect your vision. Oysters are far and away the best source of this mineral. Otherwise, you can get it from beef, crab, and fortified breakfast cereals.
It protects your cells from damage and infection, and keeps your thyroid working the right way. Selenium also can keep your muscles strong, and may help prevent age-linked illnesses like dementia, some types of cancer, and thyroid disease. Just one or two Brazil nuts a day should be enough. Don’t overdo it. Too much selenium can make your hair fall out and turn your nails brittle.
Potassium plays a part in almost everything inside your body, including your heart, kidneys, muscles, and nerves. It also may help protect against stroke, high blood pressure, and osteoporosis. Many people don’t get enough. Dried apricots, bananas, spinach, milk, and yogurt are good sources. Ask your doctor before you take supplements. They can interfere with medications for high blood pressure, migraine, and other conditions.
This natural form of vitamin B9 is in leafy greens, nuts, beans, and other foods. Pregnant women take a lab-made form of vitamin B9 called folic acid to help prevent birth defects. Folate helps with cell growth and may protect against stroke and certain cancers. Most of the people do not get enough. Folate found in foods is safe. But too much folic acid from supplements or fortified foods can raise your odds of having colon cancer or nerve damage.
You probably know fiber is good for you. But did you know it’s even more important as you age? Fiber helps protect against strokes, helps you poop more regularly, and lowers your cholesterol and blood sugar — big benefits in older bodies. Women over 50 should get at least 21 grams a day, while men need 30 grams, but most people don’t get that much. That’s equal to about 6-8 servings of whole grains, or 8-10 servings of vegetables.
How to Get Them
Whether it’s vitamins, minerals, or fiber, it’s best to get them from foods instead of pills. But that can be a challenge for some older people, especially if you don’t eat a balanced diet. You’re most likely to lack vitamin D, potassium, calcium, or dietary fiber. If you think you need more than you can get from food, talk to your doctor about supplements that will be safe with your meds, diet, and health.